The native New Mexico cutthroat trout has declined in recent years because of the introduction of rainbow trout and neighboring land practices. Likely fished by the ancient Anasazi civilization, they were also the first trout to be identified in the New World by early explorers. The cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) is a fish species of the family Salmonidae native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin in North America. For other uses, see, Its range is designated as the Humboldt River, Salmonid susceptibility to whirling disease, "Synonyms of Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson, 1836)", "The Classification and Scientific Names of Rainbow and Cutthroat Trouts", 10.1577/1548-8446(1989)014<0004:TCASNO>2.0.CO;2. Sexually mature Two subspecies, O. c. alvordensis and O. c. macdonaldi, are considered extinct. The majority of opportunity lies in the northern part of the state throughout the Rio Grande basin and Pecos River basin. The Rio Grande cutthroat was the first North American trout to be recorded by Spanish explorers centuries ago. The Department raises Rio Grande cutthroat trout exclusively at Seven Springs Hatchery, and for good reason, said Tony Jacobson, hatchery manager at Seven Springs. Rio Grande cutthroat trout occupy abaout 450 miles of stream in New Mexico. In 1902, anticipating the completion of the east entrance road from Cody, Wyoming, Captain Hiram M. Chittenden supervised the construction of the first "Fishing Bridge" across the outlet of Yellowstone Lake. The decline can be attributed in part to the introduction of non-natives, such as the German brown trout and rainbow trout. , The population at the core of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout's native range, in Yellowstone Lake, declined significantly in the 1960s due to overharvest of mature cutthroat trout by anglers, as well as overharvesting of eggs by hatcheries in the early 20th century. somber coloration does tend to be more common. management practices the Rio Grande cutthroat will begin staging a comeback Morgan Timms / The Taos News ; Morgan Timms/The Taos News. cutthroat, typically with the brown trout utilizing the warm lower reaches The cutthroat trout is one of the best looking trouts around. , Cutthroat trout require cold, clear, well-oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms or cold, moderately deep lakes. These markings are responsible for the common name "cutthroat", first given to the trout by outdoor writer Charles Hallock in an 1884 article in The American Angler. , Cutthroat trout are opportunistic feeders. Data Rio Grande cutthroat trout Artwork: Kathy Harms The Rio Grande cutthroat trout, classified in the Salmonidae fam-ily, is New Mexico's state fish and one of only two trout native to the state (the other is the Gila trout (Oncorhynchus gilae). After emergence, fry begin feeding on zooplankton. bright red or orange along their lower flanks. still 120 known populations of Rio Grande cutthroat (Alves et al.  Within the native range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout, U.S. from the Pecos River watershed displaying much large spots, similar to Cutthroat trout are restocked in Eagle Rock Lake in the Wild Rivers Recreation Area. There are two forms of this subspecies, one in the Rio Grande and the other in the Pecos River. Loss of habitat due to competition and hybridization with introduced trout and habitat alteration has restricted the remaining 122 populations to small (5.8 km median length) isolated habitat patches. Since brown trout tend to be much In the lower reaches of larger rivers, anglers in drift boats float the rivers searching for trout along the wooded shorelines. was originally declined, in 2008 the USFWS determined that the Rio Grande The Rio Grande cutthroat was the first trout to be discovered in North America by Europeans and was first described in 1541 by Spaniards crossing the southwest in search of gold. to the Rio Grande cutthroat, it is not the only one and historically habitat There is a bluish tinge in the lining of the mouth and on the membrane under the upper jaw, and the subspecies is distinguished by relatively large, … Previously, it was believed that the species also lived in the Arkansas River drainage, but the new genetic evidence suggests otherwise. They are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the rivers of the Pacific basin, Great Basin and Rocky Mountains. Yet even if species find mountain refuges, their new environments can … Rio Grande cutthroat have the distinction of being the southern most subspecies of cutthroat trout. The common name "cutthroat" refers to the distinctive red coloration on the underside of the lower jaw. RIO GRANDE CUTTHROAT TROUT } Oncorhynchus clarki virginalis FAMILY: Salmonidae. As Rio Grande cutthroat trout are light rose to red-orange on the sides and pink or yellow-orange on the belly. Fish and Wildlife Service exists to restore populations of the Lahontan cutthroat trout (O. c. henshawi) in Pyramid, Walker, Fallen Leaf, June, Marlette, and Gull Lakes and the Truckee River in California and Nevada. A large spotted Rio Grande cutthroat from a Pecos River The historic range of Rio Grande cutthroat trout has been reduced over the last 150 years due to many changes on the landscape, including: drought, water infrastructure, habitat changes, hydraulic changes, hybridization with rainbow trout and other species of cutthroat trout, and competition with brown trout and brook trout. those of the Greenback cutthroat. Yet, over the years, the habitat has shrunk and the population has declined. Historically, Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout occupied all cool waters in the Rio Grande drainage, including the Chama, Jemez and Rio San Jose drainages, along with suitable waters of the Pecos and Canadian drainages. According to Behnke (2002) these trout are thought to An understanding of the upper thermal tolerance of Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout is important for developing water temperature standards and for … Brown trout are also known to grow to larger sizes The historic range of the cutthroat … Biologists later split the group into two subspecies, christening the name westslope cutthroat trout with the lewisii name which honors explorer Meriwether Lewis and renaming the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Salmo bouvierii, the first name given to the Yellowstone cutthroat trout by David Starr Jordan in 1883 honoring a U.S. Army Captain Bouvier.  Ranges of some subspecies, particularly the westslope cutthroat trout (O. c. lewisi) have been reduced to less than 10 percent of their historic range due to habitat loss and introduction of non-native species. These fish average 8 to 9 in (20 to 23 cm) in small streams and 8 to 22 in (20 to 56 cm) in larger rivers and lakes. The Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki virginalis), a member of the family Salmonidae, is found in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado in tributaries of the Rio Grande.,  . In inland populations, the introduction of rainbow trout from hatchery stocks have resulted in cutbow hybrids that continue to diminish the genetic purity of many cutthroat trout subspecies. Although it’s the state fish of New Mexico, the Rio Grande cutthroat trout is imperiled. to deal with fishing related harvest.  Then, in 1994, park officials discovered lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Yellowstone Lake. While this petition Rio Grande cutthroat, so little is known about variations in their habits Rio Grande cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, can be found in high elevation streams and lakes of the Rio Grande, Canadian, and Pecos River drainages in Colorado and New Mexico, giving it the southern-most distribution of any form of Cutthroat Trout. 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