From early 20th century Shanghainese, many English words are borrowed, such as 高尔夫/高爾夫 gāoěrfū "golf" and the above-mentioned 沙发/沙發 shāfā "sofa". In addition to Mandarin, most Taiwanese also speak Minnan, Hakka, or an Austronesian language. Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language.  Most recent reconstructions also describe an atonal language with consonant clusters at the end of the syllable, developing into tone distinctions in Middle Chinese. In addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach and are often also sensitive border zones. The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese. Contemporary colloquial Cantonese has distinct loanwords from English, such as 卡通 kaa1 tung1 "cartoon", 基佬 gei1 lou2 "gay people", 的士 dik1 si6*2 "taxi", and 巴士 baa1 si6*2 "bus". Most Chinese users in the modern era are capable of, although not necessarily comfortable with, reading (but not writing) the alternative system, through experience and guesswork.. As a result, these terms are virtually indistinguishable from native Chinese words: indeed, there is some dispute over some of these terms as to whether the Japanese or Chinese coined them first. As a result of this loaning, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese share a corpus of linguistic terms describing modern terminology, paralleling the similar corpus of terms built from Greco-Latin and shared among European languages. Think about it this way. Involve me, and I’ll understand.” The best language games are designed to involve you in different ways of using the language. Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables. The view that Chinese will not be embraced as a global language focuses excessively on linguistic properties, which is not accurate according to Dr Gil. There are many systems of romanization for the Chinese varieties, due to the lack of a native phonetic transcription until modern times.  During the 1950s and 1960s, Russian had some social status among elites in mainland China as the international language of socialism. Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. This could be an implication of mainland China's power expanding.  Language is one of the features used for ethnic identification. In 100 CE, the famed Han dynasty scholar Xu Shen classified characters into six categories, namely pictographs, simple ideographs, compound ideographs, phonetic loans, phonetic compounds and derivative characters. A well-educated Chinese reader today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters; approximately 3,000 characters are required to read a Mainland newspaper. The major hurdle in changing language is finding the relevant settings page in the Settings app. Chinese character inscriptions have been found in turtle shells dating back to the Shang dynasty 1 (1766-1123 BC) proving the written language has existed for more than 3,000 years.  In that year, the government pushed linguistic unity in China, focusing on the countryside and areas with ethnic minorities. Chinese is the language mainly spoken by the people living in China, and this has several varieties or dialects that are spoken within the mainland of China itself. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. It is the most used mother tongue on the planet with over 900 million native speakers and more learning it as their second (or more) language. , Historically, the Chinese language has spread to its neighbors through a variety of means. 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