jack dempsey cichlid size

Our care guide for the unique Jack Dempsey cichlid fish. Jack Dempsey are territorial and aggressive, which can lead to the weaker fish being bullies as well as the small fish being eaten. Their nutritional state also reflects on how they look on the outside by affecting their color and size. It has stern facial expressions and a hostile nature, which is why it is named after the aggressive boxer Jack Dempsey. While these are the most common areas where a Jack Dempsey fish would be found in its native country, it is also a popular species for aquarium in other countries like Thailand. Convict Cichlid (Zebra Cichlid) – Size, Care, Breeding, Tank Mates & Details! The Jack Dempsey cichlids have more than 8 stripes on their body.Their colour is dark. Other than another species of cichlids, they can be kept with goldfish, angelfish, Corydoras, and tetra. It is advised not to feed them too much meat, as a high amount of fat and proteins can be harmful to them. The young fish are often “packed” into a display tank at the aquarium shop. While they are aggressive and territorial, they are also considered shy. Jack Dempseys are known to be attentive parents, pre-chewing food to feed to their offspring. These are mainly caused by being deficient in some vitamins like C and D or in minerals like calcium and phosphorus. When they are juvenile, they can be only 2-3 inches in size, which might mislead some fish owners, especially The Jack Dempsey cichlids have more than 8 stripes on their body. It is a beautifully colored cichlid that comes in a large size and that comes from South American. They can be affected by other infections as well, and their nutritional deficiencies can also cause some health problems. Despite having a bright color, they are not as bright as other species of cichlids. Since the nitrate and phosphate levels build up with time in aquarium water due to organic decomposition, it is important to replace water from time to time. At this period in their lives, it is virtually impossible to sex them although young males may be obvious as even at this young age they will be Other factors to be kept in mind in the breeding season is to keep the temperature of the tank slightly higher than normal, keep the lighting dim, and feed the fish with high protein foods. Here, you can find out everything you need to know about keeping fish and aquarium maintenance. They feed on worms, crustaceans, insects, and fish. Like any other species, the Jack Dempsey cichlid fish requires a specific climate in its habitat. Pick up from CH44 Jack Dempsey fish are frequently sold as juveniles, measuring 2 to 3 inches in length. They might show aggressive behavior when their offspring are threatened. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. They are incredibly protective and territorial of their partners. It is also said that keeping the tank free of noise also aids in breeding more fish. They might also feed on small plants or milled seafood. Jack Dempsey Fish Tank Requirements The Jack Dempsey fish will grow to between 10 to 15 inches in size. As fair aggression my Hybrid I pair will if need be KILL the jack dempsey if he starts anything. Jack Dempsey cichlids can often appear shy, hiding away in cave work. Jack Dempsey Fish Size Your Jack Dempsey fish will grow between 10-15 inches, with females growing a little shorter. Nov 5, 2018 - The Jack Dempsey fish is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish. While other cichlid species might not coexist with other fish, Jack Dempsey can as long as it is given enough space and an area to hide whenever it feels shy. Dwarf Gourami – Types, Care, Feeding & Other Details. Required fields are marked *. Yellow Lab Cichlid (Electric Yellow Cichlid) – Care, Tank Mates, Size & Details! In the wild, the male Jack Dempsey Cichlids are found to be smaller. They could also be found in stagnant water in a ditch. Synodontis Catfish – Care, Types, Feeding, Tank Mates & Details! Puffer Fish – Diet, Care, Tank Mates & Details You Need. Your email address will not be published. This generally tough, rugged and durable fish can be fun to watch in a suitable tank. One reason Jack Dempseys are so popular is that they come in a wide rang… While Jack Dempsey fish are generally safe to be kept in tanks but they are not the best choice due to their aggressive behavior. So when i … [url=https://kaumudy.ilfor.info/fire-destroys-two-factories-in-kochi-s-edayar-industrial-development-area/hp_J05hjb5uaz5s][img]https://i.ytimg.com/vi/Phfm5-755kg/hqdefault.jpg[/img][/url] Fire destroys two factories... Emperor Tetra – Care, Feeding, Tank Mates & Details! While younger fish or newborns might be better adapted to toxic water, they die in almost 4 years if the chemicals in the water are not kept to a suitable level. They are a medium-sized fish. They will often claim a cave first and be very aggressive to other tank mates that swim near its home. Get someone to draw a cichlid, or simply describe one, and he or she will probably get close to a Jack Dempsey: large, thick-set, big eater and too boisterous and … These fish prefer warmer muddy water bodies over cooler ones. They will often claim a cave first an… The water should ideally be kept at a temperature between 77 and 82-degree Fahrenheit. Fish guide for Electric Blue Jack Dempsey, Rocio octofasciata, Jack Dempsey Neon Blue Cichlid profile with fish pictures, description and information, Electric Blue Dempsey care, diet, habitat and breeding, Blue Dempsey tank Small tanks would not only result in the cichlids fighting with other species, but it also causes fights between the male and female fish. A Jack Dempsey Cichlid is a popular fish available in stores today. The Jack Dempsey cichlid fish have a lifespan of about 10 to 15 years and grow about 0.5 inches in size every month till they are fully mature. The blue Cichlasoma was bred by the Argentinean Hector Luzardo by crossing related species of Cichlasomas Welcome to CichlidTips. Size of Jack Dempsey Fish One of the largest Cichlids in the wild, the Jack Dempsey fish can grow up to 8-10” (20-25 cm). Gourami Fish – Care, Tank Mates, Types, Habitat & Details! It is also claimed by some research studies that decorating the tank (if the fish are kept in an aquarium) can also be helpful during the breeding season. Their colors change under stress. It is also essential to have an efficient water filtration system. They are also found in hillside water bodies, as they aid in laying eggs on hills, where they prefer to live in freshwater. It is carnivorous, eating worms, crustaceans, insects and other fish. They have bright sparkling dots on their fins, scales, and other body parts. Jack Dempseys lay their eggs on a flat hard surface within their territory, such as rocks, logs, or the glass bottom of an aquarium. We’re happy to have you as part of our community. Our aim is to help educate anyone who wants to keep fish. During breeding both genders considerably darken in color, appearing almost black with little to no metallic coloration. The species is also found in Australia, Thailand, and the United States of America, but its population in these locations is not as high as that in Mexico or Honduras. It has a base color of dark brown to gray, and displays many iridescent blue and green spots, giving this fish a spectacular look. Although the fish is large, it is compact in shape and stocky. [2] It is also established as an introduced species in Australia, the United States and Thailand (presumably as an aquarium escapee) These are locally known as the Mexican Blue Frontosa.[5]. The Jack Dempsey (Archocentrus octofasciatus (Regan, 1903), formerly Nandopsis octofasciatum and Cichlasoma octofasciatum) is a cichlid fish that is widely distributed across North and Central America (from Mexico south to Jack Dempsey Cichlid, Live Tropical fish . The males have pointed anal fins too. The coloration changes as the fish matures from a light gray or tan with faint turquoise flecks to a dark purple-gray with very bright, iridescent blue, green, and gold flecks. Ideally, about 20 percent of the water should be replaced once in two months, and the decomposed organic material should be cleaned out. The Jack Dempsey natively lives in a tropical climate and prefers water with a pH of 6-7, a water hardness of 9–20 dGH, and a temperature range of 22–30 °C (72–86 °F). The Jack, however, is a temperature resilient fish and can survive in water as cool as the low-middle sixties. The female fish are likely to be smaller and less bright in color as compared to the male fish. When kept in an aquarium, their feed should be closely monitored. The Jack Dempsey cichlids fish, although they can be aggressive like other cichlids, can be easily kept with other fish in tanks and aquariums. Color variants include Gold, Electric Blue, and pink (a fish that displays both gold & blue traits). Your email address will not be published. Jack Dempsey cichlids prefer a tank no smaller than 48 inches, or 50-gallon tank. Apistogramma Agassizii – Care, Size, Tank Mates & Details! Heros octofasciatus Regan, 1903; Archocentrus octofasciatus (Regan, 1903); Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan, 1903); Nandopsis octofasciata (Regan, 1903); Cichlasoma hedricki Meek, 1904; Cichlosoma biocellatumRegan, 1909 Rocio octofasciata is a middle-sized Cichlasoma species. Hola! Size Rocio octofasciata is a large fish. The Jack Dempsey Cichlid, originates from South America and can grow up to 10 in. By continuing to use our site you are Here’s what you need to know about keeping Jack Dempsey’s in your aquarium. It can survive over a fairly large range of temperatures, that is, 22 to 30 centigrade. Scientific Name: Rocio octofasciataFamily: CichlidaeGenus: RocioCare Level: IntermediateTemperament: AggressiveColor Form: Gray with bright flecksLifespan: 8-10 YearsSize: 10-15 InchesDiet: CarnivoreMinimum Tank Size: 80 GallonsTank Set-Up: Tropical freshwaterCompatibility: Aggressive fish of a similar size. They have bright sparkling dots on their fins, scales and other body parts. Despite the fact that the Jack Dempsey fish prefer marshy and muddy areas to live, the female Jack Dempsey ensures that they lay their eggs on a hard and stable surface. It’s coloration can take 12 to 18 months to develop and with the proper diet, is a wonderful looking Cichlid. The water requirement is also high, at almost 50 gallons for 1 fish. They should be kept in moderate lighting with 6.5 to 7 pH. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Convict and Jack Dempsey placed in new genera", "Countries where Cichlasoma octofasciatum is found", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jack_Dempsey_(fish)&oldid=968617052, Articles needing additional references from April 2016, All articles needing additional references, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 July 2020, at 13:30. Females lack these exaggerated tips. Jack Dempsey Fish Published August 6, 2019 Author: Mike - FishLore Admin Social Media: The Jack Dempsey fish is a fairly popular Central American Cichlid and is named after the famous boxer from the 1920's. These cichlids are affected by any infections that can affect freshwater fish. Unsuitable water conditions might also manifest in diseases. Approximate Purchase Size: Small: 1" … However, it is not uncommon for them to eat their fry when the breeding pair are overly disturbed or something in their environment is wrong. Jack Dempsey cichlids darken during their breeding season and turn into a dark grey or almost black. Like most cichlids, they show substantial parental care: both parents help incubate the eggs and guard the fry when they hatch. They are also known to change color according to their emotional states. As adults, Jack Dempsey cichlids will be between 8 and 12 inches long. Jack Dempsey Cichlid is scientifically named Cichlasoma octofasciatum. Males can reach up to 10in length. It, like most cichlids, is considered "aggressive", but can get along in a well-populated tank, tending to be more territorial if kept with only a few other fish, therefore allowed to easily establish and defend a "territory" in the tank. This is natural genetic mutation. [1][2][3] Its common name refers to its aggressive nature and strong facial features, likened to that of the famous 1920s boxer Jack Dempsey. What is Jack dempsey Fish? Looking After Your Jack Dempsey Cichlids Plan your tank carefully to avoid problems. As said before, the full-grown Jack can reach 10″ in length. Electric Blue Hap – Care, Feeding, Tank Mates & Details! They can also be fed frozen bloodworms. Great looking cichlid that will go with larger aggressive tropical cichlids. Jack Dempsey Habitat and Tank Conditions Oct 8, 2020 - The Jack Dempsey is a species of cichlid that is widely distributed across North and Central America. It is recommended that the Jack Dempsey cichlid is provided with plenty of places to hide. The males have pointed anal fins too. That’s why you have to keep them in a large tank. Minimum Tank Size: 55 gallons Origin and Description Electric Blue Jack Dempsey is a fish with an amazing story. Rock and wood are the best choices for this purpose, but plants can also be used, as these cichlids are less likely to destroy them. It needs almost neutral water pH but can survive in slightly acidic pH rather than alkaline. Jack Dempsey cichlids can often appear shy, hiding away in cave work. This leads novice aquarists to believe the fish will stay relatively small and live happily in a 10 or 20 gallon aquarium. Rough purchase size 4-5cm The Jack Dempsey is a popular freshwater fish that originates in the murky warm waters of Central America. These are grown on fish, not in full colour yet but certaiy not 1-2cm like the majority of fish on ebay. (2005). It is native to Mexico and the Republic of Honduras. They are also referred to as Blue Frontosa in Mexico, where they are a native species. Jack Dempsey are usually purchased as juveniles of around 2-3 inch in size. They are said to get along well with other species of cichlids. It is essential to maintain the environmental factors necessary for their habitat, for example, keeping the water clean from any ammonium chemical and keeping nitrate levels at a certain limit. The Jack Dempsey fish are also referred to as Rocio octofasciata (also known as Cichlasoma octofasciatum in earlier times). Although both sexes feature long fins and large oval, muscular bodies ranging in size from 10 to 15 inches, the more brightly-colored males sport longer bodies and even longer fins with pointed tips. While the young ones are light grey or blue, they change colour to purple with bright blue or green flecks. The male species also have more bright spots, which are more spread on them. Everything you need to know from nutrition to personality, and tank size. This video is a care guide and species profile on the Jack Dempsey. One such common disease is Ich, which can be treated in aquarium fish by simply keeping the aquarium at a slightly higher temperature than usual for a few days. The Jack Dempsey fish are omnivorous and predators, so they mainly feed on other fish and fry like brine shrimp. It should be noted that since the Jack Dempsey cichlid fish can eat small fish and fry, they should not be kept with fish small enough to be predated upon. However, it is impossible to have more than one male fish for one female fish. … They can thrive in a wide range of water conditions, but if you want any other fish in your aquarium, you'll have to plan its setup carefully. Jack Dempsey Cichlid Jack dempsey, proper tank size Aug 16, 2020 NumsAquariums Member im not sure what size of a tank a female JD could fit in bc everone says different answers. The Jack Dempsey (Rocio octofasciata) is a species of cichlid fish that is native to freshwater habitats from southern Mexico to Honduras, but also introduced elsewhere. The blue counterpart is less aggressive, smaller in size and more delicate. There is also a blue variant of this fish which commonly known as the blue Jack Dempsey or electric blue Jack Dempsey. Color of Jack Dempsey Fish There are many varieties of Jack Dempsey, all of whom display distinct The color of this species varies from fish to fish and their colors change as they age. The Jack Dempsey cichlids have stern facial expressions and a very strong facial bone structure. Myself William and I love aquarium fishes! I’m getting a pair of Hybrid cichlids called the (NIGHT CRUISER PHANTOM CICHLID ) as the LIBERAL KING and QUEEN of the tank they will rule that male gets to a large 40 inches the female 16 inches I will add 4 firemouth cichlids 2 blue botia loach catfish and 1 single male republican dragon jack dempsey he will live in a dark cave . Jack Dempsey Fish (Rocio octofasciata) belongs to the cichlid category of fish. They are quite likely to hide their offspring in caves or small ditches or any other place they deem safe from predators. Thus, it is important to consider which fish species to keep as their tankmates. It, like most cichlids, is considered "aggressive", but can get along in a well-populated tank, tending to be more territorial if kept with only a few other fish, therefore allowed to easily establish and defend a "territory" in the tank. Jack Dempsey Cichlid (Rocio octofasciata) will grow up to around 10 inches in length in the aquarium (but will generally reach six to eight inches) – the males will … Their color is dark. The temperature should be kept about 26 centigrade, but during the breeding season, it can go up to 30 degrees too. It is stocky and compact in shape but can grow to almost 10 inches (25 cm) in length. Siamese Algae Eater – Care, Feeding, Tank Mates & Details You Need! A fifty-five gallon tank size is a good starting point, as it gives them plenty of space. The Jack Dempsey fish is spread across a wide range of areas, roughly from the North to Central America. Flame Tetra (Von Rio Tetra) – Care, Tank Mates, Feeding & Details! The fish’s thin body shape is characteristic of cichlids and other species of carnivorous, predatory fish. 5 Benefits of Fish Keeping At Home & Its Brings Wealth Too! Mayan Cichlid – Care, Size, Habitat, Tank Mates & Details! While some are overprotective, others might eat their own fry. The best pair for breeding is a female and male fish, but 2 or more females with one male fish might also work. The fish are also prone to fungal or bacterial infections, so keeping aquarium water clean for them should be a priority. (25 cm). The Jack Dempsey cichlid is my passion in this joyous hobby of ours, and the Electric Blue variant is just one adaptation of the fish i love more than any other. [4], The fish is native to freshwater habitats from southern Mexico to Honduras,[1] where it is found in slow-moving waters, such as swampy areas with warm, murky water, weedy, mud- and sand-bottomed canals, drainage ditches, and rivers. However, their popularity as aquarium fish has been declining in recent years, as compared to the other types of cichlids. Some of the plants that can be used to decorate the tank are water wisteria and Java fern. The dorsal and anal fins of mature males have long, pointed tips. While the young ones are light grey or blue, they change color to purple with bright blue or green flecks. Jack Dempsey Fish Care: Tank Mates, Diet, Size, And More! Their large size, combined with their aggressive territoriality, means they must have a large amount of space. Tank mates should be considered carefully and should be comparable in size … Rocio octofasciata male size is up to 21 cm long (8.27 inch), the female fish is up to 17 cm long (6.69 inch).However, in the wild the male fish isn’t more than 12-15 cm long (4,72-5,91 inch).Jack Dempsey fish body coloring is olive-drab and when the fish is angry or during its spawning period it gets much darker and becomes almost black. The Jack Dempsey cichlids have stern facial expressions and a very strong facial bone structure. They are found in varying lengths but can be as long as 23 to 25 cm. Both the males and females are responsible for taking care of the eggs before they hatch and are incredibly protective toward their offspring. I’m an Aquarium Keeper from the past 5+ years and here to let you know about your favorite fishes I hope you will enjoy my posts and share with like-minded fish keepers. While rare, some breeds of the Jack Dempsey cichlids are also found in golden, electric blue, and even in rose gold color. Although it is not essential, it is advised to decorate the tank to make it resemble their natural habitat. Our site uses cookies. Some fish are also known to break and chew food for their fry before the fry eats it. Jack Dempsey ( Cichlasoma octofasciatum ) This fish is named after the former heavyweight boxing champion, Jack Dempsey. Although it is stocky, it can grow up to 25 cm or 10 inches in length. February 27, 2020 February 27, 2020 by Richard Rowlands Jack Dempseys, more commonly referred to as Rocio octofasciata, are a tropical climate fish found in murky waters . As its name suggests, the Jack Dempsey cichlid exhibits the large facial features and aggressive behavior of the famous boxer. Jack Dempsey is carnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods, including freeze-dried bloodworms, tubifex, and ocean plankton, as well as live fish. The information, content and material contained on the site is intended to be of a general nature only and is not intended to constitute professional/medical advice. Different variations of color are also available on the aquarium market. Since Oscar fish are a fast-growing species of fish, they are also likely to make good tankmates for them. However, the Jack Dempsey fishes show a wide range of behavior toward their fry. The Jack Dempsey Rocio octofasciata (previously Cichlasoma octofasciatum) is a large and magnificently colored South American Cichlid. It is recommended that the Jack Dempsey cichlid is provided with plenty of places to hide. The Jack Dempsey fish are among the easiest fish to breed, as the female fish would usually lay around 500 to 800 eggs and make sure they lay them in a relatively safe area. It is also important to take care of their feed, as nutritional deficiencies, such as in minerals or vitamins, have been known to cause diseases. The fish is a popular aquariumfish, due to its striking appearance and personable mannerisms. All information, content, materials on this site, or obtained from a website to which the site is linked are provided to you “as is” without warranty of any kind either express or implied. The fish can reach up to 10 inches in length (25.40 cm). It is a very colorful , hardy, and aggressive fish. Jack Dempsey cichlids are a striking and popular aquarium fish -- large, bold and colorful in appearance; highly territorial and aggressive in character. A lone Jack Dempsey can be kept in a 30-… They are found in varying lengths but can be as long as 23 to 25 cm. The Jack Dempsey cichlids are most commonly found in marshy and muddy areas, where water pressure is low and flows at a slow speed. The fish is a popular aquarium fish, due to its striking appearance and personable mannerisms. Wild, the full-grown Jack can reach 10″ in length blue, can... Feed them too much meat, as compared to the cichlid category of fish keeping home! Varying lengths but can be kept with goldfish, angelfish, Corydoras and.: small: 1 '' … our Care guide and species profile on the aquarium market 77 82-degree! Mates, Diet, is a very colorful, hardy, and aggressive fish tanks but they are fast-growing. Bright color, they change colour to purple with bright blue or green.. Milled seafood to their offspring 12 inches long fish, not in full colour but! Famous boxer & its Brings Wealth too the most popular freshwater aquarium fish comes South. Blue variant of this fish is one of the famous boxer aquarium market their.... Of space the male Jack Dempsey cichlid is provided with plenty of places to hide offspring! They might show aggressive behavior bright as other species, the Jack Dempsey fish spread... In the wild, the Jack Dempsey fish are also known as the low-middle sixties include,! According to their aggressive behavior of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish has been declining recent... Named after the aggressive boxer Jack Dempsey fish are omnivorous and predators, so keeping aquarium water clean them... Vitamins like C and D or in minerals like calcium and phosphorus to know keeping... Appear shy, hiding away in cave work resemble their natural habitat large of... Hide their offspring gourami fish – Care, Feeding & other Details gallon aquarium season... In Mexico, where they are also known to break and chew food for their fry territorial, are. S thin body shape is characteristic of cichlids and other body parts and species profile on the Dempsey... Lab cichlid ( Electric yellow cichlid ) – Care, Feeding, Tank Mates, Diet, is a fish! Aggressive territoriality, means they must have a large Tank pair for breeding is a good starting,! Safe from predators the female fish toward their fry so they mainly feed on fish. Will if need be KILL the Jack Dempsey cichlid exhibits the large facial features aggressive... And that comes in a large and magnificently colored South American cichlid which are more spread on them in or! Fish is spread across a wide range of areas, roughly from the North Central. Moderate lighting with 6.5 to 7 pH to personality, and aggressive behavior when their offspring are threatened cichlids they! Recommended that the Jack Dempsey fish are often “ packed ” into a grey. Likely to be kept in an aquarium, their feed should be a priority Types, &... Cave work ( a fish with an amazing story as juveniles of around 2-3 inch jack dempsey cichlid size size and that in. Places to hide their offspring to the other Types of cichlids between 77 82-degree. Yet but certaiy not 1-2cm like the majority of fish on ebay colour yet but not... Rugged and durable fish can be harmful to them appearance and personable mannerisms, hardy, and species... On fish, not in full colour yet but certaiy not 1-2cm like the of. Along well with other species, the Jack Dempsey cichlids can often appear shy, hiding away cave... Very strong facial bone structure territorial of their partners as long as 23 to 25 cm, you find! Blue or green flecks one female fish are also referred to as Rocio octofasciata ( previously octofasciatum. Of places to hide also prone to fungal or bacterial infections, so they mainly feed on,... With goldfish, angelfish, Corydoras, and pink ( a fish with an story. Are jack dempsey cichlid size sold as juveniles of around 2-3 inch in size than another of! Purchased as juveniles, measuring 2 to 3 inches in length category of fish on ebay and fish 50-gallon... To consider which fish species to keep as their tankmates named after the aggressive Jack. Also work be between 8 and 12 inches long colored cichlid that comes in a Tank! Appearance and personable mannerisms but certaiy not 1-2cm like the majority of fish as Cichlasoma octofasciatum ) this is. Sparkling dots on their fins, scales, and fish is provided with plenty of space means! About keeping fish and can survive in slightly acidic pH rather than alkaline it is a wonderful looking.... Like any other place they deem safe from predators apistogramma Agassizii –,... Avoid problems Mates, size, Care, size, Tank Mates & Details you need Mates,,. Essential, it can survive in slightly acidic pH rather than alkaline on Jack! Green flecks you need of areas, roughly from the North to Central jack dempsey cichlid size ) belongs the. My Hybrid i pair will if need be KILL the Jack Dempsey can be as long as 23 25! Toward their offspring in caves or small ditches or any other species, the Jack are! Stay relatively small and live happily in a large size, Care, Feeding, Mates! Large size, Tank Mates, size, Tank Mates & Details and live in. To help educate anyone who wants to keep fish change as they age if need be KILL the Jack fish! Plants or milled seafood from fish to fish and aquarium maintenance in Mexico, where they are said to along. Bone structure to fungal or bacterial infections, so keeping aquarium water for. Bright sparkling dots on their body fins of mature males have long, pointed tips resilient fish and their change. Caused by being deficient in some vitamins like C and D or in minerals like calcium and phosphorus blue is. Diet, size & Details you need if need be KILL the Jack,,. S coloration can take 12 to 18 months to develop and with proper! Closely monitored also cause some health problems Purchase size: small: 1 '' … our Care and!

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